14.英语简单句betway必威体育:、并列句、复合句解析

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英语简单句、并列句、复合句解析

  语法知识点1

2013-04-07 18:02阅读:7,627

  1.as…as.。。引导的比较级:(1)“as +形容词或副词原级+
as+被比较对象”结构。例句: He studies as hard as you.
他像你一样学习努力。

英语简单句、并列句、复合句解析

  (2)在否定句或疑问句中可用 not so…as…. 例句:He can not run so/as
fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

简单句、并列句和复合句

  2.only引导的倒装句型:only +状语
(或状语从句)位于句首时,句子部分倒装。 

考点一 简单句

  例句: Only by diligence and honesty can one succeed in life. 
只有勤奋、正直,一个人在生活中才能成功。 

  1. 简单句只包含一个主谓结构.

  2. 五种简单句:

  注意:但 only修饰主语时,不倒装。例句: Only that girl knew how to
work out the problem.  只有那位女生知道怎样解那道题。

1) 主+谓. He comes at last.

  3.wish引导的虚拟语气:wish
后面的从句,当表示与事实相反的情况,或表示将来不太可能实现的愿望时,其宾语从句的动词形式为: 

2) 主+系+表. She is a teacher.

  ⑴表示对现在情况的虚拟:从句动词用过去式或过去进行式表示,be
的过去式用were.   

The soup tastes nice.

  I wish I knew the answer to the question.   
我希望知道这个问题的答案。(可惜不知道。) 

3) 主+谓+宾. They reached the village.

  ⑵表示对过去情况的虚拟:从句动词用had +过去分词。 

4) 主+谓+间宾+直宾.He gave me a pen.

  I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time. 
我后悔不该浪费这么多时间。( 实际上已经浪费掉了。) 

5) 主+谓+宾+宾补.I find that book very useful.

  ⑶表示对将来的主观愿望:谓语动词形式为“would/ should/ could/ might
+动词原形”。在这种情况下,主句的主语与从句的主语不能相同,因为主句的主语所期望的从句动作能否实现,取决于从句主语的态度或意愿(非动作名词除外)
。 

考点二 并列句

  I wish it would stop raining.  但愿雨能停止。 

并列句:两个或两个以上的简单句,用连词连接起来。

  注意:若wish 后的宾语从句中用
would,可以表示请求,通常意味着说话人的不快或不满。

常用的连接词有:

  例句:I wish you would be quiet.  我希望你安静一些。 

  1. 表示顺承关系的:and, not only…but also(不仅….而且….)等。

  4.it形式宾语:和it 作形式主语一样,  我们常用it 来作形式宾语,
把真正的宾语从句放在句末, 这种情况尤其出现在带复合宾语的句子中。

She ______ gave us a lot of advice, _______helped us to
overcome difficulties.

  例句:He has made it clear that he will not give in.
他表明他不会屈服。 

Linda tried to become an excellentteacher, _____ at last she
succeeded.

  5.The+比较级,the+比较级  表示“越….。。越….。。”。

  1. 表示选择关系和否定条件的有or(还是,否则)

  例句:The more scared we are, the stronger the difficulty will
become。我们越害怕困难,困难就会变得越强大。

Do you want to leave now ____ would yourather set off later?

  语法知识点2

Wear your coat, ____ you’ll catch a cold.

  1. 宾语从句:一般疑问句做宾语,引入if或whether

  1. 表示转折关系的有but, yet等。

  例句: I want to know if he will join us in the discussion?

He is young, but he works hard.虽然他年轻,但工作努力。

  2. 原因状语从句:since引导的

  1. 表示因果关系的有for, so 等。

  例句: Don’t eat too much sugar since it is bad for your health。

My leg hurts so I go to see a doctor. 我的腿疼,因此我去看医生。

  3. 否定词前置倒装:scarcely…when。.

考点三 主从复合句:宾语从句

  例句: Scarcely had he arrived at home when it began to rain。

  1. 宾语从句的引导词

  4. If虚拟条件句

(1)引导 陈述句用 that(在口语和非正式文体中常常省略)

  从句 主句
跟现在事实相反 一般过去式(be用were) would/should/might/could +动原
跟过去事实相反 had+done would/should/might/could+have done
跟将来事实相反 should+动原;were to do sth would/should/might/could +动原

He tells me (that ) he is going shopping thisSunday.

  5. 宾语从句:放在介词后面,作介词的宾语。

(2) 引导一般疑问句用if或whether.

  例句:I know nothing about him except that he used to work in
Shanghai。

She asked me if\ whether she could join us.(whether…or not)

  6.状语从句省略(分词作状语):从句的主语和状语从句的主语一致,状从省略采用分词作状语。例句:

(3) 引导特殊疑问句,要用原来的特殊疑问词。

  (Because) being short of money, we can’t afford a TV set. =Because
we are short of money, we can’t afford a TV set。

She asked them what they were doing.

  语法知识点3

  1. 宾语从句的语序 :要用陈述句语序。

  1.并列句:由and, or , but连接的两个句子成为并列句。

I want to know when the train left.

  2.省略句 /倒装:so/系动词/助动词/情态动词 +sb
表示“前者情况适用于后者”。例句:

  1. 宾语从句的时态

  You are a student, so am I。

(1)主句是一般现在时,一般将来时或祈使句,宾语从句可根据实际需要选用各种时态。

  3.定语从句 who引导的限定性定从。例句:

He tells us that he has been able to lookafter himself.

  Do you remember the girl who taught us English
?你还记得教我们英语的那个女孩吗?

(2) 主句是过去时态,宾语从句应使用过去时的相应时态。

  5.倒装:否定词seldom前移,句子倒装。例句:Seldom did he speak。

They said that they had already finished thework.

  4.宾语从句:whether的用法。例句:I wonder if/whether it is going to
rain tomorrow。

(3)
如果宾语从句叙述的是客观事实、真理、自然现象等,不管主句用什么时态,从句都用一般现在时。

  5.不定式做定语。例句:The only way to solve our problems will
continue to be rejected。

He said that light travels faster than sound.

  6.原因状从:now that的用法。now that 表示 “既然”。与 since
的不同之处在于,now that
引出的必须是一个新出现的事实或情况,如果依然如故,和过去相比并没有变化,则不用
now that 引导。

  1. 练习

  例句:Now that we have all the materials ready, we should begin the
new task at
once。既然我们把所有材料都准备好了,我们应该立刻开始这项新的工作。

1)Sheasked me, “Will you go to the cinema tomorrow?”
(改为含宾语从句的复合句)

  7. 原因状从:for的用法。由because
引导的从句如果放在句末,且前面有逗号,则可以用并列连词 for
来代替。但如果不是说明直接原因,而是多种情况加以推断,就只能用 for
。例句:He is absent today, because/for he is ill.
他今天没来,因为他生病了。

She asked me______ I ______ go to the cinema the next day.

  8. 原因状从:as 的用法。例句:The Singapore passengers begin to
decrease as other airlines spread their operating range。

2) Howlovely the dog is! Can you tell me _____?

  9. 同位语从句:I want to know the answer to this question who will
be our next president。

A. where did you get it B.where will you get it C. where you got it

  原因状从: in that的用法。例句:

3) — Can you tell me _____ your parents at home?

  Privatization is thought to be beneficial in that it promotes
competition. 私营化的优点在于能促进相互竞争。

— I often wash clothes and sweepthe floor.

  10. 不定式:不定式做目的状语。例句:We get up very early to catch
the first bus。

A. how will you help B. how you help C. how will you help D. how do you
help

  文章来源:跨考教育[微博]

4) When I was young, my grandfather told me that the sun ______
(rise) inthe east.

考点四 状语从句

一、状语从句在复合句中作状语,修饰主句中的动词、形容词、副词等。

1.地点状语从句

地点状语从句通常由 where 引导。

Put allthe things _____they were.

A. whereB. when C. whose D. which

2.时间状语从句(主句用将来时,从句用一般现在时)

时间状语从句的引导词有when, before, after, until, assoon as, since,
while, as 等

She wascooking when someone knock at the door.

What willyou do after you finished your homework?

3.条件状语从句

在条件状语从句中,常用的引导词有if, unless等。

If itdosen’t rain, I” ll go fishing.

They willhave a picnic unless it rains next Sunday.

4.原因状语从句

原因状语从句常用的引导词有because, as, since(既然)等

He didn’tcome because he was ill.

Since weare students, we should study hard.

*Because 和so 不能在一个句子中同时使用。

  1. 结果状语从句

结果状语从句主要由so…that…, such…that…引导。

It’s sohot that we want to go swimming.

That’ssuch an interesting story that everybody likes it.

*So… that…与简单句之间的句型转换

1) that后的句子是否定句,常用too…to进行转换。

He is soyoung that he can’t go to school.à he is too young to go to
school.

2) that后的句子是肯定句。常用enough to 进行转换。

The shirtwas so cheap that he bought it. à the shirt was cheap enough
forhim to buy.

6.目的状语从句

目的状语从句常用的引导词有so that, in order that 等àin order to 简单句

Pleasesay it in a loud voice so that everyone can hear it.

He worksharder in order that he can go to a good college.

  1. 让步状语从句

引导词有though, although, even if, even though(尽管)等。

He oftenhelps others though\ although he is not rich.

They willstand by you even if you don’t succeed.

*Though, although与but 不能同时出现在一个句子中

8.比较状语从句

比较状语从句由than, as…as…, not as\so… as等引导。(比较级)

He ismore outgoing than I.

He ran asfast as Mike.

二、练习

  1. It’squite common in Britain to say “thankyou”tothe drivers _____
    people getoff the bus.

a.after b. since c. until d. when

  1. Theart club is for members only. You can’t go in ____you are a
    member.

a.unless b. because c. if d. though

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